The information released by Conservation International (CI) raises concern about the protection of coral reefs ecosystems from ocean warming and global climate change. The study was conducted by scientists from CI, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
To determine whether coral deaths caused by ocean warming were lower inside marine protected areas, researchers combined more than 8,000 coral reef surveys performed by divers with satellite measurements of ocean surface temperatures.
“Marine protected areas can protect coral reefs from localized problems, particularly overfishing and terrestrial run-off,” according to Elizabeth Selig, study’s lead author, a scientist with the CI. But the magnitude of losses from increased ocean temperatures as a result of climate change appear to be overwhelming as compared to these positive effects.
This study suggests, as pointed out by Selig in the press release, that we need to rethink our current planning for MPAs in order to maximize the benefits they can provide.
Globally, corals reefs are being degraded by a number of factors including overfishing, sedimentation and rising ocean temperatures due to greenhouse gas emissions, Selig said.
MPAs provide many direct benefits to fisheries and coral reefs, however such zones appear to offer limited help to corals in their battle against global warming, according to the new study. The researchers on the study concluded that to protect coral reefs from climate change, marine protected areas need to be complemented with policies that can meaningfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
“Although marine protected areas could help coral populations recover from temperature-induced mortality in particular situations, this does not appear to be an effective general solution,” said study author John Bruno, an associate professor of biology in the UNC College of Arts and Sciences.
A rise of just 1 degree to 2 degrees Fahrenheit (about 0.5 degrees to 1 degree Centigrade) above normal summertime highs can kill coral polyps, which build reefs.
Given the difficulty of slowing or reversing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions, coral reef scientists, managers and conservationists had pinned their hopes on a different, more localized strategy: saving corals by restricting fishing in marine protected areas. The reasoning is that fishing depletes herbivorous fishes, which can lead to more seaweed on the seafloor; that can harm baby corals, so restricting the taking of fish that trim back seaweed should help coral populations recover.
Previous research has shown that under optimal conditions, reefs in marine protected areas saw increases in coral cover of 1 percent or 2 percent per year.
But those gains might not be enough to mitigate the impact of thermal stress events. For example, the new study found that when water temperatures were more than 1 degree Centigrade above summertime averages for eight weeks (recognized as the threshold that generally results in widespread bleaching and significant coral death), it correlated with coral cover loss of 3.9 percent annually.
“Reducing overfishing, although clearly a very good thing, will not meaningfully limit the damage being done to the world’s coral reefs by greenhouse gas emissions,” Bruno added.
Richard B. Aronson, professor and head of the biological sciences department at the Florida Institute of Technology, said the study clearly showed that marine protected areas cannot by themselves save coral reefs.
“We have to reverse climate change by stopping runaway greenhouse gas emissions,” said Aronson, who did not participate in the study. “That is a lot harder than protecting a reef against local problems like fishing pressure, because it requires international cooperation. But it can be done — and it must be done if we are going to save the coral reefs and the rest of the planet.”
Along with Selig and Bruno, the other author of the study was Kenneth S. Casey, a satellite oceanographer and technical director of NOAA’s National Oceanographic Data Center.